Supplemental Bibliography
for "Gauss's Day of Reckoning"

Note: This list of references accompanies the following article: “Gauss’s Day of Reckoning,” by Brian Hayes, American Scientist, Vol. 94, No. 3, May-June 2006, pages 200-205. Most of the information was gathered in 2006 or earlier, with only a few later updates. The article and other related resources are availble through this list of links.

Works that include versions of the anecdote

Alamo, Fernando de. 2005. Gauss y la campana. Weblog posting in Historias de la Ciencia, 22 December 2005. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-03)

Anton, Howard, in collaboration with Albert Herr. 1995. Calculus with Analytic Geometry. Fifth edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (p. 967) (Added 2006-04-14)

Bell, E. T. 1937. Men of Mathematics. New York: Simon and Schuster. (See chapter 14, "The Prince of Mathematicians: Gauss," pp. 218–269.)

Bieberbach, Ludwig. 1938. Carl Friedrich Gauß: Ein Deutsches Gelehrtenleben. Berlin: Keil Verlag. (pp. 14–15)

Borwein, Jonathan, and David H. Bailey. 2004. Mathematics by Experiment: Plausible Reasoning in the 21st Century. Natick, Mass.: A K Peters. (p. 42)

Bos, H. J. M. 1978. Gauss 1777–1855. In Carl Friedrich Gauss, 1777–1855: Four Lectures on his Life and Work. Edited by A. F. Monna. Utrecht: Communications of the Mathematical Institute, Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht. (p. 4)

Boutiche, Saïd. 2005. Représentation mentale, cognition et mathématiques. Link to Web page

Boyer, Carl B. 1968, 1991. A History of Mathematics. Second edition. Revised by Uta C. Merzbach; foreword by Isaac Asimov. New York: Wiley. (p. 497)

Bradley, Michael J. 2006. The Foundations of Mathematics: 1800 to 1900. New York: Chelsea House. (pp. 16–17)

Bruce, Donald, and Anthony Purdy (editors). 1994. Literature and Science. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi. (pp. 73–74)

Burrell, Brian. 1998. Merriam-Webster's Guide to Everyday Math: A Home and Business Reference. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster. (p. 24)

Burton, David M. 1976. Elementary Number Theory. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. (pp. 68–69)

Cantor, Moritz. 1878. Carl Friedrich Gauss. In Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie Vol. 8, pp. 430–445. Leipzig: Verlag von Duncker & Humblot.

Choi, Young Back. 1993. Paradigms and Conventions: Uncertainty, Decision Making, and Entrepreneurship. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. (p. 33)

Daepp, Ulrich, and Pamela Gorkin. 2003. Reading, Writing, and Proving: A Closer Look at Mathematics. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. (p. 209.)

Dartmouth. 2000. Posting on open forum for class Soc 15, Quantitative Analysis of Social Data. Dartmouth College. (Header reads: "single on Tue Jun 6 09:32:47 2000.") Link to Web page

Dehaene, Stanislas. 1997. The Number Sense: How the Mind Creates Mathematics. New York: Oxford University Press. (pp. 147–148)

Derbyshire, John. 2003. Prime Obsession: Bernhard Riemann and the Greatest Unsolved Problem in Mathematics. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press. (pp. 48–49)

Devlin, Keith. 1997. Mathematics: The Science of Patterns: The Search for Order in Life, Mind, and the Universe. New York: Scientific American Library. (p. 21)

Digital Termpapers. Undated. Carl Friedrich Gauss. Link to Web page

Dunham, William. 1990. Journey through Genius: The Great Theorems of Mathematics. New York: Wiley. (pp. 236–237)

Dunnington, G. Waldo. 1937. Carl Friedrich Gauss: Inaugural Lecture on Astronomy and Papers on the Foundations of Mathematics. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. (pp. 4–6)

Dunnington, G. Waldo. 1955. Carl Friedrich Gauss: Titan of Science. Reprinted 2004 with additional material by Jeremy Gray and Fritz-Egbert Dohse. Washington, DC: Mathematical Association of America.

Du Sautoy, Marcus. 2003. The Music of the Primes: Searching to Solve the Greatest Mystery in Mathematics. New York: Harper Collins. (pp. 24–25)

Elta Universitate. Undated web site. Carl Friedrich Gauss. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-03-11)

Estep, Donald. 2002. Practical Analysis in One Variable. New York: Springer-Verlag. (pp. 29–30)

Eves, Howard W. 1969. In Mathematical Circles: A Selection of Mathematical Stories and Anecdotes. Vol. 2, Quadrants III and IV. Boston: Prindle, Weber & Schmidt. (p. 112, item 319)

Fadiman, Clifton, and Andre Bernard, general editors. 1985, 2000. Bartlett's Book of Anecdotes. Revised edition. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. (p. 229)

Falbo, Clement. 2000. Math Odyssey. Champlain, Ill.: Stipe Publishing Co. Excerpts available online. Link to Web page

Fong, Peter. 2003. SIMMS Integrated Mathematics. A Modeling Approach Using Technology: Integrated Mathematics, Level 2. Student edition. Dubuque, Ia.: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. (pp. 381–382)

Ford, Clay. 2003. The story of 1729 and other weird math facts. Curiousmath Web site (posting dated Monday, February 10, 2003, 4:40 PM). Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Friendly, Michael. 1988. Advanced LOGO: A Language for Learning. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. (pp. 64–66)

Galle, A. 1916. C. F. Gauss als Zahlenrechner. In Matierialien für eine wissenschaftliche Biographie von Gauss, compiled by F. Klein, M. Brendel and L. Schlesinger. Vol. IV. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner. Available online. Link to PDF file (pp. 4–5)

Garcia, Brandon. 2005. Problem solvers. Red Orbit Breaking News, 29 September 2005. (Reprinted from The Santa Fe New Mexican.) Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Gaudet, Keith. 2002. How Do You See It? Discovering Mathematical Patterns and Sequences. Albuquerque Teachers' Institute. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Gauss2005 web site. 2005. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) — sein Leben. Link to Web page (Viewed 2005-11-25)

Geschwinde, Ewald, and Hans-Jürgen Schönig. 2002. PHP and PostgreSQL: Advanced Web Programming. Indianapolis, Ind.: Sams Publishing. (p. 89)

Giancoli, Douglas C. 2000. Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics. Third edition. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. Available online. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-02)

Gindikin, S. 1999, 2000. Carl Friedrich Gauss. Quantum 10(2):14–19 and 10(3):10–15. (Vol 10(2), p. 14)

Glassner, Andrew. 1999. String Crossings (Andrew Glassner's Notebook) IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 19(2):88–95.

Goldman, Phyllis (editor). 2002. Monkeyshines Explores Math, Money, and Banking. Greensboro, N.C.: The North Carolina Learning Institute for Fitness and Education. (p. 57)

Goldstein, Martin, and Inge F. Goldstein. 1984. The Experience of Science: An Interdisciplinary Approach. New York: Plenum Press. (p. 89)

Gosselin, Marie-Ève. 2000. Gauss et le GAUS. L'Attracteur: La Revue de Physique. No. 9, Hiver 2000. Available online. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-15)

Gowar, Norman. 1979. An Invitation to Mathematics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (pp. 7–11)

Graham, Ronald L., Donald E. Knuth and Oren Patashnik. 1989. Concrete Mathematics. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. (p. 6 and p. 30)

Grégory. 2005. Gauss, l'enfant prodige. Blog posting, Jeudi 14 juillet 2005. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-15)

Hall, Tord. 1970. Carl Friedrich Gauss: A Biography. Translated by Albert Froderberg. Cambridge: M.I.T. Press. (pp. 3–5)

Hannoversch Münden web site. Undated. No author listed. Carl Friedrich Gauss. Link to Web page

Hänselmann, Ludwig. 1878. Karl Friedrich Gauß: Zwolf Kapitel aus Seinem Leben. Leipzig: Duncker and Humblot. (pp. 16–17)

Hartmann, Caroline. 1997. Carl Friedrich Gauß und die Geometria Situs des Universums. Ibykus No. 58 (1/1997). Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-15)

Hawking, Stephen W. 2005. God Created the Integers: The Mathematical Breakthroughs that Changed History. Philadelphia: Running Press. (p. 563)

Hein, James L. 2002. Discrete Structures, Logic, and Computability. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett. (pp. 256–257)

Hoffman, Paul. 1998. The Man Who Loved Only Numbers: The Story of Paul Erdos and the Search for Mathematical Truth. New York: Hyperion. (pp. 171–173)

Hollingdale, Stuart. 1977. C. F. Gauss (1777–1855): A bicentennial tribute. Bulletin Institute of Mathematics and its Applications 13(3–4):68–76. Reprinted inMakers of Mathematics, 1989, London: Penguin Books. (p. 314)

Hu, R.. 2003. Gauss's Gift. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22).

IBM Research. 1998. Ponder this, July 1998. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-21).

Jacobs, Konrad. 1992. Invitation to Mathematics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. (pp. 72–74)

Johns, Vincent. 1997. Usenet posting in news group, May 18, 1997, in thread "sum of sequence of 1/n." Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-18)

Kaplan, Robert, and Ellen Kaplan. 2003. The Art of the Infinite: The Pleasures of Mathematics. New York: Oxford University Press. (pp. 30–31)

Katz, Victor J. 1998. A History of Mathematics: An Introduction. Second edition. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley. (p. 654)

Kehlmann, Daniel. 2005. Die Vermessung der Welt. Hamburg: Rowohlt, Reinbek. (p. 56)

Kilpatrick, Jeremy, Jane Swafford and Bradford Findell (editors). 2001. Adding It Up: Helping Children Learn Mathematics. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. (pp. 108–109)

King, Jerry P. 1992. The Art of Mathematics. New York: Plenum Press. (p. 40)

Körner, T. W. 1996. The Pleasures of Counting. Cambridge University Press. (p. 281)

Krantz, Steven G. 2005. Mathematical Apocrypha Redux: More Stories and Anecdoetes of Mathematicians and the Mathematical. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Associaiton of America.

Kritzman, Mark P. 2000. Puzzles of Finance: Six Practical Problems and their Remarkable Solutions. New York: John Wiley and Sons. (p. 118)

Langevin, Philippe. 1999. Quelques Propriétés Cachées des Nombres. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-15) Web site. 2003. Johann Gauss: Dare i numeri fa bene. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-15)

Loy, Jim. 1997. How to be a little Gauss. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-21)

Lozansky, Edward, and Cecil Rousseau. 1996. Winning Solutions. New York: Springer-Verlag. (p. 46)

Mann, Avinoam. 1998. Re: Re[2]: C. F. Gauss, Boy Wonder: speculation on what really happened. Posting to Discussion List on the History of Mathematics, Tue, 17 Nov 1998 03:27:56 +0200. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-15)

Maor, Eli. 1991. To Infinity and Beyond: A Cultural History of the Infinite. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. (p. 123)

Marymount International School, Rome (Valeria P., Mattia B., Bianca Di L., Edoardo M., Francesco C., and Ms. Derarca Lynch). 2007. From Pythagoras to Euler to Grade 8: The Geniuses of Math. In Marymount International School, Rome, February 2007 Newsletter. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Mathé, Franz. 1906. Karl Friedrich Gauss, von Franz Mathé. Leipzig: Im Feuer Verlag. (pp. 3–4)

Maxint. Undated Web site. Galleria dei grandi matematici della storia. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-18)

May, Kenneth O. 1972. Carl Friedrich Gauss. In Dictionary of Scientific Biography (Vol. 5, pp. 298–315). New York: Scribner. (p. 298)

McElroy, Tucker. 2005. A to Z of Mathematicians. New York: Facts on File, Inc. (pp. 112–115)

Mollin, Richard A. 1999. Algebraic Number Theory. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. (footnote, p. 26)

Muir, Jane. 1961. Of Men and Numbers: The Story of the Great Mathematicians. New York: Dodd, Mead. (Reprinted by Dover Publications, 1996) (p. 158)

Munro, J. 1891. Heroes of the Telegraph. Seattle, Wash.: The World Wide School. Link to Project Gutenberg e-text. (Viewed 2007-05-04)

Nordgreen, Jan. 2004. Think Again: 101 Dalmations. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Noreña, Francisco. 1992. El develador de las incógnitas: Carl Friedrich Gauss. México: Pangea. (pp. 12–14)

NRICH Team. 1999. Clever Carl. NRICH Web site, University of Cambridge. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

O'Connor, J. J., and E. F. Robertson. 1996. Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss. MacTutor. Link to Web page (Viewed 2005-11-24)

Ogilvy, C. Stanley, and John T. Anderson. 1966. Excursions in Number Theory. New York: Oxford University Press. (Reprinted 1988 Dover Publications.) (p. 12)

Ohm, Matthias. 2005. Wie der Blitz einschlägt, hat sich das Räthsel gelöst: Carl Friedrich Gauß in Göttingen. CD-ROM. Elmar Mittler, Herausgeber. Göttingen: Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek. Available online. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-02)

Olson, Steve. 2004. Count Down: Six Kids Vie for Glory at the World's Toughest Math Competition. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Company. (p. 67)

Omnes, Roland. 1999. Quantum Philosophy: Understanding and Interpreting Contemporary Science. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. (p. 99)

Owens, Philip J. Undated. Young Gauss astounds Herr Buttner. A play. Mathematics department, Austin Community College, Austin, Texas. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Pappas, Theoni. 1994. Fractals, Googols and other Mathematical Tales. San Carlos, Calif.: Wide World Publishing/Tetra.

Park, David. 1999. Karl Friedrich Gauss finds a pattern. Mathematica notebook. Tutorial for high school students. Link to Mathematica notebook (Viewed 2006-02-15)

Pascual i Gainza, Pere. 2005. Geometria de superfícies: Una aproximació a la figura de Gauss. Lecture notes, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. Link to PDF file (Viewed 2006-02-15)

Pereira, Egmon. Undated Web site. Carl Friendrich Gauss. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-02)

Pérez Sanz, Antonio. Undated Web site. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855): "El príncipe de los matemáticos." Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-02)

Perplex City Card Catalog. Undated. #046:Sum Shortcut. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Pettit, Annie. 2001. Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855). Honors paper, Miami University of Ohio. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-02) Undated Web site. Carl Friedrich Gauss. Link to Web page (Viewed 2005-11-25)

Pólya, George. 1962. Mathematical Discovery: On Understanding, Learning, and Teaching Problem Solving. Vol. 1. New York: John Wiley & Sons. (pp. 60–61)

Posamentier, Alfred S., and Herbert A Hauptman. 2001. 101 Great Ideas for Introducing Key Concepts in Mathematics: A Resource for Secondary School Teachers. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Corwin Press. (pp. 45–46)

Prasad, Ganesh. 1933. Some Great Mathematicians of the Nineteenth Century: Their Lives and their Works. In three volumes. Benares, India: The Benares Mathematical Society. (pp. 2–3)

Rassias, George M. 1991. The Mathematical Heritage of C. F. Gauss. Singapore: World Scientific. (p. 1)

Rebolledo, Raquel Ardia de, Mario Ernesto Pérez Ruiz, Carmen Samper de Caicedo and Celly Serrano de Plazas. 2005. Espiral 11: Serie de matemáticas para secundaria y media. Bogatá: Grupo Editorial Norma. (p. 113)

Reich, Karin. 1977. Carl Friedrich Gauss: 1777–1977. Translated by Patricia Crampton. Bonn-Bad Godesberg: Inter Nationes. (pp. 7–8)

Rice, Adrian. 2009. Gaussian guesswork: Or why 1.19814023473559220744... is such a beautiful number. Math Horizons, November 2009, pp. 12–14.

Ross, Peter. 1995. Why isn't there a Nobel prize in mathematics? Math Horizons, November 1995, p. 9. Available online. Link to Web page (Viewed 2005-11-24)

Rubinstein, Mark. Undated. Little Friedrich Gauss. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-21)

Ryan, Jordan and Matthew. 2001. Math Mania: Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss. Flint Hill Elementary School, Vienna, Va. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-02)

Sartorius von Waltershausen, W. 1856. Gauss: zum Gedächtniss. Leipzig: Verlag von S. Hirzel. (pp. 10–13)

Sartorius von Waltershausen, W. 1856, 1966. Carl Friedrich Gauss: A Memorial. Translated by Helen Worthington Gauss. 1966. Colorado Springs, Colo. (pp. 2–4)

Schaaf, William L. 1964. Carl Friedrich Gauss: Prince of Mathematicians. Immortals of Science series. New York: Franklin Watts. (pp. 5–7)

Schlesinger, Ludwig. 1933. Über Gauss' Arbeiten zur Funktionentheorie II. Traditionen über die erste Jugendzeit bis zum Abgang auf die Universität Oktober 1795. In Gauss Werke, herausgegeben von der K. Gesellschaft der wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Göttingen: Gedruckt in der Dieterichschen universitäts druckerei (W. F. Kaestner). Vol. 10, Part 2. Available online from Göttinger Digitalisierungs-Zentrum. Link to PDF file

Scolnik, Hugo. 2006. Mi vida junto a Gauss. Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-03)

Scripture, E. W. 1891. Arithmetical prodigies. The American Journal of Psychology 4(1):1–59. Available online. Link to Web page (p. 9)

Sherman, Alan. 1998. Jokes. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-21)

Shoaff, William. 2000. Sums, Sequences, and Series in The Analysis of Algorithms. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Simmons, John. 2000. The Scientific 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Scientists, Past and Present. New York: Citadel Press. (p. 195)

Simon, Marvin K. 2002. Probability Distributions Involving Gaussian Random Variables: A Handbook for Engineers and Scientists. Norwell, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (p. xiii)

Stewart, Ian. 1977. Gauss. Scientific American 237(1):122–131.

Stewart, Ian. 2007. Why Beauty Is Truth: A History of Symmetry. New York: Basic Books. (pp. 64–67)

Suzuki, Jeff. 2002. A History of Mathematics. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. (p. 577)

Swetz, Frank J. 1994. Learning Activities from the History of Mathematics. Portland, Maine: Walch Publishing. (p. 8)

Tent, M. B. W. 2006. The Prince of Mathematics: Carl Friedrich Gauss. Wellesley, Mass.: A K Peters.

Torvalds, Linus, and David Diamond. 2001. Just for Fun: The Story of an Accidental Revolutionary. New York: HarperCollins. An excerpt including the Gauss anecdote also appears online as "The Beauty of Programming," Bryn Mawr Department of Computer Science. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Ullrich, Peter. 2005. Herkunft, Schul- und Studienzeit von Carl Friedrich Gauß. In Carl Friedrich Gauß in Göttingen, edited by Elmar Mittler. Göttinger Bibliotheksschriften 30. Göttingen: Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek. Link to PDF file (Viewed 2006-03-11)

Vakil, Ravi. 1996. A Mathematical Mosaic: Patterns and Problem Solving. Burlington, Ontario: Brendan Kelly Publishing. (p. 137)

Vokey, John R., and Scott W. Allen. 2005. Thinking with Data. Fourth edition. Lethbridge, Alberta: Psyence Ink. (pp. 1–3) Link to PDF file

Weisstein, Eric W. 2003. CRC Concise Encyclopedia of Mathematics. Second edition. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press. (Entry on arithmetic series, pp. 123–124)

Weisstein, Eric. Undated. Gauss, Karl Friedrich (1777-1855). Eric Weisstein's World of Biography. Link to Web page (Viewed 2005-11-25)

Wikipedia article on Gauss. Undated. Carl Friedrich Gauss. Link to Web page (Viewed 2005-11-25) Artikel "Der kleine Gauss". Link to Web page (Viewed 2006-02-04)

Winnecke, Friedrich August Theodor. 1877. Gauss: Ein Umriss seines Lebens und Wirkens. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg.

Worbs, Erich. 1955. Carl Friedrich Gauss: Ein Lebensbild. Leipzig: Koehler & Amelang. (pp. 17–18)

Wußing, Hans. 1989. Carl Friedrich Gauss. Leipzig: BSB B. G. Teubner Verlagsgesellschaft. (pp. 9–11)

Zimmer, Harro. 1988. "Portrait eines Genies" Carl Friedrich Gauß, Fürst der Mathematiker. Transcript of a radio presentation: RIAS Berlin; Kulturelles Wort Wissenschaftsredaktion, Sendung vom 10.09.1988 (08.45 Uhr - 09.00 Uhr; RIAS I). Transcript available online. Link to PDF file (Viewed 2006-02-02)

Zimmermann, Robin H. 1999. A Description of Gauss. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22)

Works that do not mention the anecdote

Listed below are several works that might plausibly have included a version of the schoolroom anecdote, in that they give biographical background on Gauss, but that do not in fact describe the incident.

Asimov, Isaac. 1972. Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology: the Lives and Achievements of 1195 Great Scientists from Ancient Times to the Present, Chronologically Arranged. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

Ball, W. W. Rouse. 1888–1908. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics. New York: Dover Publications (1960 reprint of 1908 edition).

Bühler, W. K. 1981.Gauss: A Biographical Study. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Dunnington, G. Waldo. 1927. The sesquicentennial of the birth of Gauss. The Scientific Monthly 24:402–414. Also available online: Link to web page

Dunnington, G. Waldo. 1960. (Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855). Encyclopaedia Britannica. Available online: Link to web page

Finkel, B. F. 1901. Carl Friedrich Gauss. The American Mathematical Monthly 8:25–31.

Gray, Jeremy John. 2005. Gauss, Carl Friedrich. Encyclopaedia Britannica.

James, Ioan. 2002. Remarkable Mathematicians: From Euler to von Neumann. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Krafft, Maximilian. 1955. Carl Friedrich Gauß. Il Nuovo Cimento Series 10, Vol. 2 (supplemento):1221–1255.

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (no author listed). 1856. Charles Frederick Gauss (obituary). Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 16:80–83. Link to web page

Quetelet, Adolphe D. 1866. Charles-Frédéric Gauss. In Sciences mathématiques et physiques chez les Belges, au commencement du XIXe siècle, pp. 643–655. Bruxelles: H. Thiry-van Buggenhoudt.

Reichardt, Hans. 1957. C. F. Gauss Gedenkband anlässlich des 100. Todestages am 23. Februar 1955. Mit Beiträgen von W. Blaschke [et al.]. Leipzig: Teubner.

Reichardt, Hans. 1960. C. F. Gauss Leben und Werk, hrsg. con Hans Reichardt, mit Beiträgen von W. Blaschke et al. Berlin: Haude & Spener.

Stillwell, John. 2002. Mathematics and Its History. Second edition. New York: Springer.

Turnbull, Herbert Westren. 1961. The Great Mathematicians. New York: New York University Press.

Wagner, Rudolph. 1855. Sur Erinnerung an Karl Friedrich Gauss. Reprinted 2003. In Mitteilungen der Gauss-Gesellschaft, Göttingen 40:97–104. With an introduction by Axel Wittmann. Link to PDF file

Wagner, Rudolf. 1975. Gespräche mit Carl Friedrich Gauß in den letzten Monaten seines Lebens. Herausgegeben von Heinrich Rubner. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. (Series: Nachrichten der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen. Philologisch-Historische Klasse; Jahrgang 1975, Nr. 6.)

Wittstein, Theodor. 1877. Gedachtnissrede auf Carl Friedrich Gauss. Hannover: Hahn.

Works not (yet) consulted

Listed below are works that are known to me but that I have not yet been able to consult. They may or may not provide additional insight into the schoolroom anecdote.

Dick, Wolfgang R. 1993. Martin Bartels als Lehrer von Carl Friedrich Gauß. Mitteilungen der Gauss Gesellschaft, Göttingen 30:59–62.

Israel, Ottokar, and Horst Michling. 1977. Carl Friedrich Gauss 1777-1855: Austellung zum 200 Geburtstag. Göttingen: Stadtisches Museum Göttingen.

Michling, Horst. 2005(?). Carl Friedrich Gauß: Episoden aus dem Leben des Princeps Mathematicorum. Göttingen: Gauss Gesellschaft e.V.

Sartorius von Waltershausen, Wolfgang. 1855, 2000. Trauerrede, Gesprochen auf der Terrasse der Sternwarte an Gauß' offenem Sarge (Feb. 26, 1855). Transcribed by Stefan Kramer. Mitteilungen der Gauss Gesellschaft, Göttingen 37:101–103.

Schimank, Hans. 1971. Carl Friedrich Gauß: eine Kurzbiographie. Mitteilungen der Gauss Gesellschaft, Göttingen 8:6–28.

Other relevant literature

Archimedes. 1953. Works. Edited in modern notation, with introductory chapters by T. L. Heath. With a supplement, The Method of Archimedes, recently discovered by Heiberg. New York: Dover Publications.

Atkinson, Leigh. 2005. When the pope was a mathematician. The College Mathematics Journal 36:354–362. (Discusses Alcuin of York and the doves-on-a-ladder problem.)

Burkholder, Peter J. 1993. Alcuin of York's Propositiones ad acuendos juvenes: Introduction, commentary and translation. HOST: An Electronic Bulletin for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, Vol. 1, No. 2. Link to plaintext version

Fibonacci (Leonardo Pisano). 1202. Liber Abaci. In L. E. Sigler, Fibonacci's Liber Abaci: A Tranlsation into Modern English of Leonardo Pisano's Book of Calculation. New York: Springer Verlag, 2002. (Algorithm for summing an arithmetic series is explained in Chapter 12, pp. 259–261)

Gauss, Carl Friedrich. 1796–1814; 1976. Mathematisches Tagebuch 1796–1814 von Carl Friedrich Gauss. Mit einer historischen Einführung von Kurt-R. Biermann; ins Deutsche übertragen von Elisabeth Schumann; durchgeschen und mit Ammerkungen verschen von Hans Wußing. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig. Ostwalds Klassiker der Exakten Wissenschaften, band 256.

Gauss, Carl Friedrich, and Wolfgang Bolyai. 1899. Briefwechsel zwischen Carl Friedrich Gauss und Wolfgang Bolyai. Herausgegeben von Franz Schmidt und Paul Stäckel. Leipzig: Verlag von B. G. Teubner.

Gauss, Karl Friedrich. 1863–1929. Werke. Herausgegeben von der K. Gesellschaft der wissenschaften zu Göttingen. Göttingen: Gedruckt in der Dieterichschen universitäts druckerei (W. F. Kaestner). Available online: Link to table of contents

Lienhard, John H. 2006. Engines of Our Ingenuity, No. 2087, Gauss's Algorithm. Podcast and Web site. Link to Web page (Viewed 2007-05-22) [Based in part on material presented here]

Merzbach, Uta C. 1984. Carl Friedrich Gauss: a Bibliography. Wilmington, Dela.: Scholarly Resources.

Peterson, Ivars. 2004. Young Gauss. Science News Online Link to web page (Discusses the historical status of the schoolroom anecdote.)

Peterson, Ivars. 2005. Problems to sharpen the young. MAA Online, Ivar Peterson's Mathtrek, November 21, 2005. Link to web page (Discusses Alcuin's list of problems and solutions.)

Remer, Christian Stephan. 1739. Demonstrativische Anweisung zur Rechen-Kunst, für diejenigen, so in derselben den rechten Grund legen wollen, und welche im gemeinen Leben unentbehrlich. (Zweyte Auflage). (Possibly the arithmetic text that Büttner purchased for Gauss; includes problems related to the summing of arithmetic progressions. Scanned images of a few pages available online. Link to web page

Segal, Sanford L. 2003. Mathematicians under the Nazis. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. (Includes extensive discussion of Ludwig Bieberbach.)